Data Sources

Gender-Environment Datasets with Broadest Country Coverage

GENDER AND ENVIRONMENT DATA

One of the pivotal contributions of GGEO is a review and assessment of available data at the intersection of gender and environment. Overall, there is only limited information available about the differences between women’s and men’s needs, resource uses, and responsibilities across all of the subsectors under sustainable development, environment, and conservation. The availability of data is important because of a simple tenet – what’s not counted doesn’t count. Women’s roles in particular are often invisible in sectors such as biodiversity due to lack of comprehensive sex-disaggregated data and information.

There are 17 indicators that provide the most geographically comprehensive gender-disaggregated, environment-relevant data. While these indicators represent a limited portion of the data and information that would ideally be needed to offer a comprehensive picture of gender aspects of environmental issues, compiling these indicators provides an important baseline that will be useful to decision makers, practitioners, and many of UNEP’s institutional partners.

The availability of data at the intersection of gender and environment is important because of a simple tenet – what’s not counted doesn’t count. Limited information is available about the differences between women’s and men’s needs, resource uses, and responsibilities across all of the subsectors under sustainable development, environment, and conservation. Women’s roles in particular are often invisible in sectors such as biodiversity due to lack of comprehensive sex-disaggregated data and information.

THE 17 INDICATORS

The primary criterion used to select the 17 indicators was the availability of data that is separated by women and men on environment and sustainable development issues. In addition, the analysis focused on data that provides coverage for the largest number of countries, datasets where country-level information is made available online, data that is relatively recent (post 2010), and data from major multilateral institutions to ensure integrity of the research. Additional data and information, including country-level studies and qualitative information, was collected for use in the Global Gender and Environment Outlook report.

The 17 indicators are grouped into 5 categories:

AGRICULTURAL WORK AND FOOD SECURITY

Under the agricultural work and food security category, data is available from Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) on the female share of a country’s economically active population in agriculture, and on the agricultural share of economically active women. Also under this category, sex-disaggregated data on agricultural employees is available from International Labour Organisation (ILO), and data from World Health Organisation (WHO) is available on the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women, which is often used to measure food security.

ACCESS TO LAND AND NON-LAND ASSETS

Under the access to land and non-land assets category, data is available from the Gender, Institutions, and Development Database (GID-DB) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on secure access to land, land title owned by women, and secure access to non-land assets. Also under this category, data is available from FAO on female agricultural holders and women’s legal property and inheritance rights.

WATER AND SANITATION

Under the water and sanitation category, data is available from the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF on access to improved drinking water and sanitation in female and male headed households and water collection roles. Also under this category, sex-disaggregated data is available from UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) on time spent on water collection, and sex-disaggregated data is available from The World’s Women produced by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs on water collection and time burdens, deaths associated with unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene issues, and water-related extreme climate events.

HEALTH IMPACTS OF INDDOR AND OUTDOOR AIR POLLUTION

Under the health impacts of indoor and outdoor air pollution category, sex-disaggregated data is available on the burden of disease from household air pollution (HAP) and burden of disease from ambient air pollution (AAP) from World Health Organisation (WHO).

FEMALE PARTICIPATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL INSTITUTIONS AND EDUCATION

Under the female participation in environmental institutions and education category, sex-disaggregated data is available from the Global Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) of the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) on the percentage of female staff in public forest institutions by region, and on the percentage of female graduates in forest-related education. Also under this category is data on female graduates in science, agriculture, engineering, manufacturing, and construction from United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO).

The following chart outlines the 17 indicators, and their relation to targets under the Sustainable Development Goals.

Agricultural work and food security Related SDG Targets[1]

1. Female share of economically active in agriculture

FAOSTAT http://faostat3.fao.org

The share of the economically active population in agriculture who are women. This FAOSTAT dataset active until 2011. The SOFA 2010-2011 includes this data.   Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere   1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance   Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture   2.2 By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons   2.3 By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment   Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls   5.a Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, financial services, inheritance and natural resources, in accordance with national laws   Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all   8.5 By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value   8.8 Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment

2. Agricultural share of economically active women

http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i2050e/i2050e.pdf

The share of the economically active female population who are engaged in or seeking work in agriculture, hunting, fishing or forestry. The State of Food and Agriculture 2010-2011 includes this data.  

3. Sex-disaggregated agricultural employees

ILO dataset http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.FE.ZS

Employees are people who work for a public or private employer and receive remuneration in wages, salary, commission, tips, piece rates, or pay in kind. Agriculture corresponds to division 1 (ISIC revision 2) or tabulation categories A and B (ISIC revision 3) and includes hunting, forestry, and fishing.

4. Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women

WHO http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SH.PRG.ANEM

Prevalence of anemia among pregnant women is the percentage of pregnant women whose hemoglobin level is less than 110 grams per liter at sea level.
Access to land and non-land assets

5. Secure Access to Land

OECD Gender, Institutions, and Development Database (GID-DB) 2014 http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=GID2

Whether women and men have equal and secure access to land use, control and ownership. Here is the ranking system:
  • 0: The law guarantees the same rights to own, use and control land to both women and men.
  • 0.5: The law guarantees the same rights to own, use and control land to women and men, but there are some customary, traditional or religious practices that discriminate against women.

  • 1: The law does not guarantee the same rights to own, use and control land to women and men, or women have no legal rights to own, use and control land.

6. Land Title Owned by Women

OECD Gender, Institutions, and Development Database (GID-DB) 2014 http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=GID2

Percentage of agricultural holdings headed by women

7. Female Agricultural Holders

The State of Food and Agriculture 2010-2011 (2012) FAO, p. 118 – 126 http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i2050e/i2050e.pdf

74 countries have the most recent data. “An agricultural holding is an economic unit of agricultural production under single management comprising all livestock kept and all land used wholly or partly for agricultural production purposes, without regard to title, legal form, or size. Single management may be exercised by an individual or household, jointly by two or more individuals or households, by a clan or tribe, or by a juridical person such as a corporation, cooperative or government agency. The holding's land may consist of one or more parcels, located in one or more separate areas or in one or more territorial or administrative divisions, providing the parcels share the same production means, such as labour, farm buildings, machinery or draught animals.”

8. Secure Access to Non-Land Assets

OECD Gender, Institutions, and Development Database (GID-DB) 2014 http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DatasetCode=GID2  

Whether women and men have equal and secure access to non-land assets use, control and ownership. Here is the ranking system:
  • 0: The law guarantees the same rights to own and administer property other than land to both women and men.
  • 0.5: The law guarantees the same rights to own and administer property other than land to both women and men, but there are some customary, traditional or religious practices that discriminate against women.

  • 1: The law does not guarantee the same rights to own and administer property other than land to women and men, or women have no legal rights to own and administer property other than land.

9. Women’s legal property and inheritance rights; institutional, financial, and social support or barriers for women’s land tenure

FAO Gender and Lands Rights Database http://www.fao.org/gender-landrights-database/data-map/statistics/en/

Sex-disaggregated statistics on gender and land rights in 101 countries (see data tables below the maps). Largely qualitative country reports on land tenure for a subset of countries.
Water and sanitation  

10. Access to improved drinking water and sanitation in female and male headed households; Water collection roles

WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation

  • Progress on Sanitation and Drinking-Water: 2014 Update includes graphic on sanitation and water in Mongolia, Nigeria, and Niger (see below)
  • In 2012 update, data drawn from MICS and DHS surveys (2006-2009) in 25 sub-Saharan African countries show that women perform 62% of water collection in the region (see graphic below)
Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all 6.2 By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations

11. Time spent on water collection

Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) UNICEF http://www.unicef.org/statistics/index_24302.html

The MICS4 (2009-2010) and MICS5 (2012-2014) instruments both include a question about time spent on water collection (question WS4: “How long does it take to go there, get water, and come back?”), and asks about the sex and age of the main person collecting water.

12. Water collection and time burdens; Deaths associated with unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene issues; Water-related extreme climate events

The World’s Women 2010: Trends and Statistics UN DESA 2010 http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/Worldswomen/WW_full%20report_color.pdf

Chapter 7 on Environment provides global gender-disaggregated data on: water collection and associated time burdens; deaths associated with unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene issues; deaths associated with water-related extreme climate events (flooding, tsunamis, etc.). Data is drawn primarily from DHS and MICS, 2006 World Bank data, and national statistics offices, and is computed by the UNSD. The data show that water collection, as well as deaths related to unsafe water or lack of sanitation services, continue to disproportionately affect women. The gendered effects of climate extremes vary by location. In some cases, climate extremes disproportionately affected men; in other locations, women were more affected.  The 2015 version of this publication will come out later this year, so UNEP Live may want to wait for that new data.
  Health impacts of indoor and outdoor air pollution  

13. Burden of disease from household air pollution (HAP)

WHO 2012 http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/HAP_BoD_results_March2014.pdf?ua=1

Includes household deaths attributable by HAP by age and sex (see below for representation of percent of total HAP burden for women, men, and children). Although women experience higher personal exposure levels than men and therefore higher relative risk to develop adverse health outcomes due to their greater involvement in daily cooking activities, the absolute burden is larger in men due to larger underlying disease rates in men.   Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages   3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination   (although this goal does not mention gender specifically, WHO data shows that mortality rates for indoor air pollution are highest for women and children)

14. Burden of disease from ambient air pollution (AAP)

WHO 2012 http://www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/AAP_BoD_results_March2014.pdf?ua=1

Includes household deaths attributable by AAP by age and sex.
  Female participation in environmental institutions and education  

15. Percentage of female staff in public forest institutions by region

Global Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1757e/i1757e.pdf 2008

Based on reports from 66 countries, while the staff of public forest institutions decreased globally between 2000 and 2008 by 9.1 percent, or 1.2 percent annually, the proportion of female staff diminished only slightly, from 23.5 percent to 22.1 percent. This percentage varied from less than 18% in Africa and Europe to over 30% in North and Central America. The global decrease is mostly a result of reductions in the Eastern and Southern Africa and the East Asia subregions, as all other regions experienced an increase or no change in the proportion of female staff. Data is from 2000, 2005, and 2008. 68 countries reporting in 2010. Requested updated female data from FRA2015 (to be published October 2015).   Goal 5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls   5.5 Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life   Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all   8.5 By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value   8.8 Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment

16. Percentage of female graduates in forest-related education

Global Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1757e/i1757e.pdf 2008

2008 data includes a) Graduation of female students in forest related education, including MSc., Bsc., Technician certificate/diploma; and b) Female professionals working in publicly funded forest research centres, by Phd, Msc, or Bsc. Based on data from 68 countries, the proportion of women studying forest sciences at university increased from 30% in 2000 to 34% in 2008. Female students made up about 31% of total master’s students, 36% of bachelor’s students and 16% of technicians. However, some significant forest countries did not provide gender disaggregated information. Asia, North and Central America and Oceania had the highest proportions of female students in 2008, while Europe and Africa had the lowest   Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all   4.3 By 2030, ensure equal access for all women and men to affordable and quality technical, vocational and tertiary education, including university   4.5 By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations   4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all

17. Female Graduates in Science; Agriculture; and Engineering, Manufacturing, and Construction

UNESCO, 2001 - 2012 Data: http://data.uis.unesco.org www.uis.unesco.org/Library/Documents/GED_2010_EN.pdf  

  • Percentage of female students enrolled in (or graduated from) tertiary education in Science
  • Percentage of female students enrolled in (or graduated from) tertiary education in Agriculture
  • Percentage of female students enrolled in (or graduated from) tertiary education in Engineering, Manufacturing, Construction

[1] Targets are drawn from “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development” (August 2015 advance unedited version). Need to check against final SDGs.

Other gender-environment SDG targets relevant to UNEP’s environmental assessment processes:

  • 11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons
  • 13.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities