United Nations
Environment Programme
Fiscal reforms in the extractives sector for green finance

A key challenge facing many resource-rich countries is how to mobilize and effectively use volatile revenues from resource extraction, while addressing social and environmental externalities of mining activities. Fiscal reforms can help mobilize additional public revenues from the extractives sector, alongside adequate administration capacities and governance structures.

By pricing externalities, green fiscal policies can help reduce negative environmental and social impacts of mining activities, leverage finance from the private sector and encourage sustainable practices.

A robust fiscal framework is needed to support transparent management and allocation of resource revenues. Strategically designed sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) and natural resource funds (NRFs) can channel resource revenues to support delivery of the SDGs.

Meeting Sustainability Goals- Voluntary Sustainability Standards and the Role of the Government

This report from the United Nations Forum on Sustainability Standards (UNFSS), of which UN Environment is a steering committee member, focuses on the role of governments in the promotion and dissemination of Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS). It highlights the economic, environmental and social impacts and challenges of VSS implementation. This 2nd flagship report of the UNFSS also provides useful analysis of the drivers for government involvement in VSS and discusses how the standards relate to the international trade regime. The report is recommended for any stakeholder interested in understanding the relationship of VSS and public-private partnerships. 

Scoping Study Summary - Saint Lucia

The objective of the study is to identify key challenges, opportunities, benefits, investments, and enabling conditions necessary to facilitate the greening of important economic activities in Saint Lucia, particularly in the sectors of energy, waste, agriculture, tourism and construction. The study provides useful information to key stakeholders in order to improve the formation of on-the-ground and policy initiatives to advance an inclusive green economy in Saint Lucia.
The scoping study outlines the macroeconomic tools and policy instruments necessary to make specific economic activities in Saint Lucia more economically resilient, environmentally sustainable and socially inclusive. 

Scoping Study Summary - Jamaica

The Green Economy Scoping Study for Jamaica identifies and assesses key opportunities for greening country’s economy as a way to advance sustainable development. It describes the context and identifies opportunities at the macroeconomic level, as well as in five key sectors: energy, agriculture, construction, water and sewerage, and tourism. Based on a qualitative assessment of challenges and opportunities in the country, it proposes key policy and programme interventions that can advance a green economy.
The purpose of the study is to provide useful information to key stakeholders in order to improve the formation of on-the-ground and policy initiatives to advance an inclusive green economy in Jamaica.

Résumé de l’étude sur les filières agricoles et le verdissement de l’économie dans le Département du Sud - Haiti

In Haiti, the link between natural resources and economic activity is inextricably linked. The economy of Haiti, as a whole, focuses on development of its natural resources, corn field crops and fruit trees, and the processing of these natural resources for export. However, environmental degradation in the country slows and even prevents growth in these sectors, thereby hindering job creation. 
This report provides a summary of the challenges, political context and key messages for delivering sustainable development through green economy in Haiti.
This report is currently only available in French.

Fiscal Policy Analysis - Mauritius

Mauritius has embraced the objective of a green economy development path. A number of fiscal instruments for environmental protection and incentives for green investment are already in place. The Government and the Maurice Ile Durable (MID) Commission have also pioneered a number of environmental policy initiatives. 
This study identifies areas with potential for improvement through the rationalization of current fiscal measures and the mobilization of further resources for innovation and investment. It sets out options for the reform of tax instruments applied to fuels used in electricity generation and transport, and identifies reforms to pricing policies pertaining to waste collection and domestic water.

A Guide for the Assessment of the Costs and Benefits of Sustainability Certification

Since the specifics of the CBA vary greatly depending on each particular case, the industry, and the focus of the analysis, this paper has the objective to provide a general introduction to the CBA methodology and to provide a toolkit that can be adapted to a wide array of different cases. This study is not intended to provide a full-fledged technical guide on the actual implementation of a CBA, but rather, to provide a diverse set of tools that can be adapted to the specific focus of the question the user is trying to answer. It will guide the user through the most relevant steps of the analysis, and provide further resources to deepen the technical knowledge to implement a CBA. 

Étude sur les filières agricoles et le verdissement de l’économie dans le Département du Sud - Haiti

This report provides an in-depth analysis of potential for a green economy transition in the agricultural sector of Haiti's South Department. The agricultural sectors were selected based on the environmental, economic and social potential to contribute to the development of a green economy in the South of Haiti. This evaluation showed that the agricultural sectors of honey, castor oil and cocoa are those with the greatest potential for a green economy approach; however, it was noted that mango and cashews could also be worth the investment. 
This report is currently only available in French.

Transition to a Green Economy in China's Jiangsu Province: A Stocktaking Report

Jiangsu province is one of the most developed provinces in China, and actively explores green planning, regulations and policies. Jiangsu took the lead, for example, in drawing “ecological redlines” (for protecting ecological functions) that cover more than 20 percent of the province’s territory, and it established a green development evaluation system for assessing the green performance of its 13 prefectures. Overall, the development of a green economy in Jiangsu has so far achieved positive outcomes and laid a good foundation for future work to address remaining challenges.

Green Economy Scoping Study Saint Lucia

This study recommends policy reforms that can help improve the sustainability of the relevant economic sectors, while also creating jobs, providing investment incentives, and moving away from a high level of debt and dependence. The recommendations build on Saint Lucia’s existing policies and are designed to respond to the fiscal and social conditions in the country. The study also highlights the important roles of the private sector, civil society and other stakeholders, in order to promote sustainable solutions.