United Nations Environment Programme
In 2002, UNEP as an Implementing Agency of the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol made a conscious departure from the past in assisting developing countries to enable them to implement the Montreal Protocol. This has resulted in the establishment of the UNEP Compliance Assistance programme (CAP) with specialized staff in the regional offices to provide direct technical assistance to countreis in the region for achieving compliance with Montreal Protocol targets on a continuing basis. The Multilateral Fund has continuously supported the CAP for six years since its inception in 2002.
The Ozone Officers Network for South Asia, or ODSONET/SA, is managed by UNEP as part of its global networking under the OzonAction Branch. Member countries include: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Korea (Democratic Republic of), Korea (Republic of), Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and two developed countries: Japan and United States of America.
The Regional Network Coordinator (RNC) who oversees activities in this region is assisted by a Policy and Enforcement officer, a Refrigerant Management Plan Officer and a Methyl Bromide Officer. Together this team of experts oversees and addresses the needs of the SA ODS Officers.
ROAP CAP intensively followed up on the Desk Study on trans-boundary movement of ODS through data analysis with countries, also referring to the Article 7 data reports provided by NOUs to the Ozone Secretariat, and EIA's analysis of customs data available in the public domain like Global Trade Atlas and United Nations Commodity Trade Database. UNEP ROAP is encouraging these countries to check companies involved, licenses granted, quantities and codes used, so that the answer of the discrepancy will be found and a possible investigation could be initiated.
With almost six years of regionalized delivery experience and important milestone of 2010 phase out commitments looming on the horizon, there is a need to review CAP's assistance to countries on compliance issues with a view to design the plan of action for the next five years and beyond. The focus in the next two years would be on compliance with 2010 targets and assisting countries in gearing up to the challenge of HCFC freeze in 2013 and 10% consumption phaseout by 2015.
The Parties will need to review phase out of additional 15% from their base-line production and consumption within 2 years (2008-2009). This challenging last mile needs careful attention and would need country-wise assessment of CFC consumption situation and implementation of phaseout measures to phaseout this 15% left-over consumption. The focus would be on phasingout remaining CFCs consumed in RAC sector through NPPs and TPMPs and in CFC MDI manufacturing countries, addressing CFC MDI phaseout needs.
For most Parties, in particular the Low-Volume Consuming Countries (LVCs), the past approaches have focused on Country Programmes/Refrigerant Management Plans (CP/RMP) as vehicles of CFC phase out primarily with less focus on other ODS. As many countries have recently discovered, the phase-out of other ODSs such as methyl bromide, carbon tetrachloride (CTC) and methyl chloroform (TCA), could pose significant problems as well. Issues, such as the controlling of methyl bromide import with exemption to quarantine and pre-shipment applications, use of CTC as process agents and laboratory and analytical uses would need to be addressed in the TPMP. Further, plans for production closures in the countries in the region e.g., production phaseout plans for South Korea for halons, are important to know so that the import dependent countries can define policies aligned to such plans.
The Decision taken during the 19th MOP (Decision XIX/6) to accelerate the phase out of consumption and production of HCFCs in Article 5 countries has major implications on the work ahead for the countries and CAP. CAP team needs to gear itself up to this challenging new work area. CAP has already received some guidance from the 2007 CAP Advisory Group meeting in Montreal on 22 September 2007 about this issue (e.g. reorient some existing CAP services to address HCFCs to a certain extent, and consider developing web pages linked to other existing information resources related to HCFCs). The Executive Committee during the 53rd Meeting has had elaborate consultations on this issue and guidance from such discussions would be used in developing CAP business plans in the future years. It is also recognized that some of these interventions have linkages with climate change (e.g., use of low HCFC emission technologies, energy efficiency opportunities for HCFC phaseout etc.).
The last few years have seen the coming into force of chemical Multilateral Environment Agreements (MEAs) and discussions at the international forum are encouraging developing synergies between these MEAs. Various Governing Council, MOP and COP decisions encourage such cooperation and mandate the Secretariats to explore ways of enhancing the cooperation with other Secretariats of the MEAs. The Regional Office is being called upon to facilitate efforts of the various chemical conventions and SAICM at the regional level. This will provide a good opportunity to integrate the Montreal Protocol activities with other chemical management activities for sustaining such activities beyond 2010. Informal Prior Informed Consent (iPIC) is one such initiative actively being promoted in the region to reduce illegal trade. Recent approval of the SIDA project on Regional Enforcement Networking for Asia and Pacific will provide a good opportunity to explore these synergies at the ground level. Moreover, MOP decisions on Green Customs Initiative and illegal trade (XIV/7, XVII/16, XVIII/12 and XIX/12) will provide another opportunity to link Montreal Protocol with broader chemical management issues.
Experiences from A2 countries have revealed that post phase out issues are very difficult to handle and need much advanced planning. For example issues like ODS waste disposal and management of ODS banks in equipment will gain criticality in the coming years. Besides, continuing increase on HCFC dependence is likely to pose challenges in establishing the base line for 2009-2010 and achieving the 2013 freeze in HCFC consumption and production. Montreal Protocol Parties would need to analyze and assess needs beyond 2010 so that timely responses and mechanisms could be developed and put in place. These are issues that CAP would need to address from now onwards within the framework of decisions that will be taken by the Parties pursuant to MOP Decision XVIII/36.
The CAP work plan has been prepared for 2008 based on:
While CAP teams will place a special focus on countries in actual or potential non-compliance, they shall continue to offer assistance, in support of implementation of on-going and future phase out activities, through the networks, information exchange and policy advisory services. Specific country-by-country assistance proposed in 2008 can be seen at Annex II to the Business Plan for 2008. The assistance will be provided through supporting NOUs to mainstream ozone issues in the national policies, thematic expertise in the CAP team, network meetings, email contacts, facilitating south-south cooperation, programmatic budget, sub-regional dialogues, coordinated country visits and compliance missions. Drawing from the work plan, a tentative country visit plan for 2008 can be seen at Attachment II.
The following will be the priorities in 2008 for the ROAP CAP team.
Compliance Decisions from 19th MOP:
Follow up on Plans of Action: